V.5 No 2


On reality of black holes

In frames of Newtonian formalism, "the gravity force affecting the body which travels inside the Earth will be equal to the gravity force created by a sphere with the radius equal to the distance from the body to the centre of Earth. The value of this force can be determined exactly the same as the value of force affecting the bodies on the Earth's surface" [26, p. 184].

Thus, for some homogeneous in all the volume gravitating body with the mass M and radius R, the force attracting some mass m located at the distance r < R  from the centre of Earth can be determined as


Consequently, the gravity force linearly decreases to the centre of Earth.


fig3.gif (19278 bytes)

Fig. 3. The model of a volume selected inside the Earth to calculate the pressure arising due to the gravity compression


To find the pressure inside the gravitating body, assume the mass m as a spherical segment with the basis dS positioned at the distance r from centre, as shown in Fig. 3. Then


Noting (49),


Integrating from R to some current value r1 , yield


It immediately follows from (51) that in the centre of considered body, at r1 = 0 ,


Thus, with the constant mass of gravitating body, the pressure in its centre grows as the fourth order of decrease of its radius. This already evidences that the rate of pressure growth inside the body will be always much higher than the rate of its compression, or rather, than the rate of decrease of the body's radius. This fully contradicts the hypothesis of possible free fall of the substance.

To estimate the order of pressures arising in the centre of gravitating body, substitute the known values for gravitating bodies in supposition that they are homogeneous and spherical. We will yield for the Earth p0 = 1,37multiplydot.gif (823 bytes)108 atmospheres and for the Sun p0 = 6,72multiplydot.gif (823 bytes)1015 atmospheres. As we see, the outer pressure of gravitating substance creates inside the body such conditions at which for a body having a size of Earth the substance in its centre will densify as (47) only in limits of a dozen of times, and with the size of Sun - in limits of hundred of times, since the regularity of substance compressibility has a logarithmic pattern. And we have to note that so high compression of the substance will unavoidably cause the abrupt growth of temperature that stimulates the same abrupt decrease of compressibility, as it is well seen in Fig. 2a. And in Fig. 2b we can see that the change of substance structure (in case of solid bodies compression) has no effect on the logarithmic type of regularity, though at definite stages typical for each kind of substance it causes a jump of compressibility. But these jumps are not finite and cannot be associated with the stage of free fall, as they are limited by the conditions of mutual position of molecules in the newly formed structure. These jumps only evidence that the substance passes to quasi-liquid non-crystal state to which gases pass with the pressure growth. And, as we see from this diagram, some substances - for example, bismuth - can have several jump-like transitions, which usually reveal at well less pressures than those which we yielded in our estimation.

Noting that black holes' masses are conventionally estimated as few masses of Sun, we come to an unambiguous conclusion that the relativistic metric equations are unable to describe all features, forcedly taking off any counteraction of substance of a celestial body to the compression.

Additionally, with the growth of black hole's mass, the density of its substance has to fall, as relativistic calculations state. "If the mass of black hole was enough large (e.g., ~ 108 from_to.gif (828 bytes) 109 Msunbottom.gif (828 bytes) ), the average density will be comparably low, and there, basically, can be located not only imaged but quite real observers" [27, p. 371- 372]. By contrast with it we see that from the view of physics, the substance density in the centre of gravitating celestial body basically cannot decrease with the mass growth, it will unavoidably grow with the growing pressure of outer layers of substance onto those inner. With it, inside the body there will produce a necessary counter-pressure that prevents the further compression. And this is fully corroborated by astronomical observations.

In particular, in Fig. 4 we show two examples of globular clusters.


fig4a.JPG (18602 bytes)       fig4b.gif (66830 bytes)

a                                                                               b

Fig. 4. Globular clusters: a - 47 Tuckane in ultraviolet spectrum [13, p. 337]; b - cluster IC2391 in soft X-rays, ROSAT/PSPC, www.ifa.hawaii.edu/research/stars_and_galaxy.htm


In these images we clearly see that a tremendous initial masses of these clusters did not fall to the centre with velocity of light but scattered into multitude of discrete masses; with it the radius of these clusters has stabilised.

We would like to mention, initially we had an intention to give as an example the protogalactic cloud which NASA released as an animated image of young galaxy under formation shown in Fig. 5, but at the last moment on the web site of the authors, mission GALEX, we saw a mentioning, this is not a photograph but an artist's interpretation, which was omitted in NASA's release.


fig5a.gif (58224 bytes)   fig5b.jpg (7868 bytes)

a                                                                               b

Fig. 5. An artist's interpretation of a protogalactic cloud during its compression and primary star formation: a - a larger fragment of the animation, b - a composition of three images of animation. From the collection of mission of Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the page "Fires of Galactic Youth",



Despite this is an artist's version, it trustworthily reflects the same fact which we might observe in real photographs of objects shown in Fig. 4. We see a dense nebula whose mass is many thousands of Sun mass. It is shown just at the moment of gravitational compression. Should the relativistic predictions be justified, in full accordance with the concept of free fall of the substance onto the centre, we would see a spherical compression of nebula to some interior point. But we see, instead to be shrunk to some point, the nebula began redistributing its mass among the multiple local gravity centres - protostars that arose inside it. In this way it passes not to a stage of black hole but to the stage of new young galaxy formation. And in accordance with the scenario that we described in [6], as the local dense areas enough for star formation form inside the cloud, this nebula will more and more distribute among the discrete objects - newly forming protostars. In their turn, each protostar, during the gravity compression and heating caused by it, will form its own electron cocoon, which will counteract the further compression of parent nebula.

Simultaneously with the electron cocoon formation, in the stars the nucleosynthesis will begin; this will finally form the structure of star, which consists of the nucleus, interior dense shell (crown), high-vacuum insulating layer, negatively charged exterior shell, and finally the most outer layer of star - electron cocoon; recent data received from Voyager mission, NASA, have corroborated just such structure of the Sun system, as we described in [6]. The ordering of particle trajectories in electron pump that forms the structure of star causes the star and its shell rotating in one direction. This last forms the magnetic field of complex structure which, above its important functions in stabilisation of the star structure, puts in order the mutual orientation of star structures of young galaxy. This in its turn causes young galaxy rotating as the whole, etc.

But the described way, during the whole evolution, at no one of its stages premises a possibility of collapse and black hole formation. And this is quite objectively, as the very idea of black holes, as we showed, has been formulated not on the grounds of analysis of the amount of physical processes occurring in protostellar and stellar, protogalactic and galactic systems. It was formulated on the basis of some abstract method, fully abstracted from the variety of forces and interdependencies, which cause the formation, evolution and death of stars and star complexes.

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