S.B. Karavashkin and O.N. Karavashkina

With the described conditions of the electron orbits stabilisation in continuum, and the main, with the revealed conditions of non-quantified radiation/absorption of the energy by the orbital electron, we encounter an important issue of phenomenology of the orbital electron excitation.

When Bohr formed the conditions of orbital electron excitation in full accordance with the energetic approach in classical mechanics, he supposed that the electron’s energy change is in direct correspondence with the orbit change. In particular, he wrote: “the large axis and rotation frequency are interrelated in a simple way with the work which we have to expend to fully separate the particles composing the atom. If we think that the spectral terms of hydrogen atom characterise this work, the spectrum points us that there exist some sequential processes during which the electron is connected with its atom stronger, passing to the less orbits and at the same time radiating” [3, p. 14]. The typical appearance of these orbits is shown in Fig. 1 [4, p. 216].


fig1.gif (11611 bytes)

Fig. 1. The appearance of electron shells of atom. The numbers point the quantity of electrons in each sub-shell [4, p. 216]


In case of circular orbit, we can determine the radius of its nth orbit as [2, p. 367]


With it the electron’s rotation frequency in this orbit was [2, p. 367]


But the discrepancy of quantum postulate and some basic difficulties that Bohr and his followers could not resolve caused them to relinguish the initial mechanical ideas on whose basis they yielded so perfect coincidence with the experiment: “According to the electromagnetic theory of light, we could expect that like radio waves evidence electric oscillations in broadcasting devices, the frequencies of separate lines of characteristic spectrum of elements inform us of electrons’ motion in the atom. But to make sense of this information, mechanics does not give a sufficient grounds; due to the mentioned scope to change the mechanical state of motion, we are unable to grasp the appearance of sharp spectral lines” [5, p. 64]. And although Bohr thought, “This chain absent in usual description of the nature that, apparently, is caused by the atom’s behaviour was obtained after Planck’s discovery of so-called quantum of action” [5, p. 64], this discovery did not give better approach, physicists to understand the essence of processes in atom. When Bohr postulated the quantum pattern of the Planck energetic transition, he did not show how this transition as such occurs. In other words, the very Planck postulate that he formulated, basing on his formula describing the black-body radiation, has not enough causation necessary in physics to substantiate the processes. The authors of quantum conceptions also well understood it and this raised great discussions even then, in the early and middle of 20th century. And the further development of the quantification ideas caused even more non-associative concepts that blurred the electron orbits in the atom and took off any determinism on whose basis Bohr yielded his results. Instead, there appeared a whole set of formulas like Heisenberg principle, de Broglie wave equation, Schroedinger equation. On one hand, they outwardly looked like wave physics formulas, but on the other, they were not rigorously proven; and the wave physics formulas with which these expressions were in somewhat way associated described in classical wave mechanics basically other processes than those to which the authors of quantum mechanics applied their expressions. Thus, the Heisenberg equation is associated in wave physics with the theorem of the frequency bandwidth in which “the summation of components of pulse with the frequency gdeltabig.gif (839 bytes)gomegacut.gif (835 bytes)  gives a considerable amplitude R (t) only during the time gdeltabig.gif (839 bytes)t, then the pulse attenuates because of occasional phase differences of components. The wider band gdeltabig.gif (839 bytes)gomegacut.gif (835 bytes) the shorter interval gdeltabig.gif (839 bytes)t… When changing   gomegacut.gif (835 bytes) garrow.gif (842 bytes) k and t garrow.gif (842 bytes) x, we would express the wave packet length gdeltabig.gif (839 bytes)x through the interval of wavelengths of components gdeltabig.gif (839 bytes) (1/glumbda.gif (841 bytes)). Then the theorem of frequency bandwidth takes the form


[6, p. 139]. With it we have to emphasise, when we pass from one set of physical parameters characterising the wave packet to another set, it does not change the meaning of the theorem of the frequency bandwidth. The packet will blur the same, in accordance with the basic statement of the theorem, i.e. with the condition


“In case of macroscopic particle whose mass is, e.g., 1 g and size gdeltabig.gif (839 bytes)x = 0,1 cm , the time of blurring is extremely large, gdeltabig.gif (839 bytes)t gequalitalike1.gif (825 bytes) 10 25 s , i.e., such packet will not blur in fact. But in case of microparticle, e.g. electron m0 gequalitalike3.gif (833 bytes) 10 -27g , gdeltabig.gif (839 bytes)x gequalitalike1.gif (825 bytes) 10 -13 cm , the wave packet blurs immediately, gdeltabig.gif (839 bytes)t gequalitalike1.gif (825 bytes) 10 -26 s [7, p. 35].

None the less, namely in (3) Heisenberg substituted the expression for the pulse of de Broglie wave


which also is the value neither proven nor derived from proven, although outwardly it copies the solution of the wave equation in the complex form. Thereupon he yields his relationship


which in his interpretation has basically other meaning cancelling the determinacy of physical processes in transition to the atomic-size structures but saying nothing that in accordance with this meaning, the time of existence of the very orbital electron as a particle is limited by an infinitesimal time in which the neutral atom will simply turn into ion without any external affection but because the electron leaves it. And this surely does not promote us to clear the issue of stable state of orbital electron.

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