VOLUME 6, issue 1 |
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S.B. Karavashkin and O.N. Karavashkina ON EXCITED STATE OF ORBITAL ELECTRON |
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Published on 26.01.2006 |
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We will study the linear dynamic model of an orbital electron excited by an external time-variable electric field. Basing on the full solution of the system of differential equations, we will analyse the typical resonance trajectories of the excited motion of electron. We will show the phenomenology of excitation basically different from the conventional idea of discrete orbital levels. In particular, when modelling the external excitation, Kepler’s laws for stationary orbits become invalid. The resonances are caused by the matched frequencies of external excitation and natural frequency of the electron’s orbit at rest. With equal frequencies, the orbital diameter is not quantified, as conventional, but depends on the strength of external field, and strongly retains the resonance condition. If changed ratio in the natural frequency of an orbital electron and the external field frequency, the type of trajectory changes, not the size of orbit. The yielded results will be extended for the case of interaction of stellar shells with the external field and field of excited nucleus of the star. Keywords: atomic physics, quantum mechanics, astrophysics, Kepler laws, Schroedinger equation, Compton effect, Planck law, Bohr atomic theory, excitation of orbital electron, excitation of stellar shell by external field Classification by MSC 2000: 70G60, 70J35, 70J40, 70J50, 81V10, 81V45, 81V70, 85A05, 85A15 Classification by PASC 2001: 31.25.Jf, 32.00.00, 32.30.-r, 32.70.Cs, 32.80.Lg, 45.30.+s, 45.40.-f, 98.10.+z, 98.35.Df |
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1. Introduction: / 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 / 5 / 6 / 2. Change of Kepler’s law when electron’s orbital motion in the external field: / 7 / 3. Stability of the electron’s orbiting at small external affection: / 8 / 4. The features of the problem of orbital electron’s excitation by the external field: / 9 / 5. Linear model of the electron’s excited motion under the external force affection: / 10 / 11 / 12 / 13 / 6. Application of the studies to astronomic observations: / 14 / Conclusions: /15 / |
S.B. Karavashkin and O.N. Karavashkina THE METHOD TO SEEK THE SOLUTION FOR SOME TYPES OF NONLINEAR WAVE EQUATION |
Published on 12.03.2006 |
We will show the technique to seek the solution for nonlinear wave equations like u’’ + g(t)u = 0 and u’’ + g(u)u = 0. We also will consider the possibility to broaden the application area of this technique for other types of nonlinear wave equations. Keywords: wave physics, mathematical physics, second-order nonlinear differential equations, wave equation Classification by MSC 2000: 33E15; 35L05; 35L70; 35J15; 35J50; 74J30 Classification by PASC 2001: 03.65.Db; 03.65.Ge; 47.20.Ky |
S.B. Karavashkin and O.N. Karavashkina SOME IMPROVEMENTS TO THE DEFINITION OF ENTROPY OF MACROSYSTEM |
Published on 21.05.2006 |
We will comprehensively study the phenomenological and statistical description of the concept of entropy and of the related law of growing entropy. We will consider not only classical examples related to the heat transfer but a broader amount of phenomena that determine both energy dissipation and accumulation in a limited volume caused by gravitational interaction of considerable galactic-scale masses. This consideration will lead us to a conclusion that the conception of entropy does not adequately describe the processes in the universe, so we may not use it in forming the gnosiological conclusions of thermal death of the universe. Moreover, the idea of entropy is discrepant even to describe the laboratory models, as it is based on illegal transformations made when derived in statistical physics. Keywords: theoretical physics, astrophysics, thermodynamics, entropy of the system, irreversible processes, reversible processes, conservative system, gravitational compression of a cloud, Gibbs distribution Classification by MSC 2000: 28D20; 37A35; 37A40; 37A60; 85A15; 85-08 Classification by PASC 2001: 05.70.Ln; 65.40.Gr; 82.60.Qr; 95.30.-k; 95.30.Sf Full text: / 18 / 19 / 20 / 21 / 22 / 23 / 24 / 25 / 26 / 27 / |
S.B. Karavashkin and O.N. Karavashkina ON CORRECTNESS OF BASIC POSTULATES OF SR |
Published on 3.08.2006 |
We will study the basic postulates of special theory of relativity: the postulate of constant speed of light in all reference frames (L-postulate) and the postulate of relativity. We will show impossible to introduce the L-postulate out of denying the aether as a material substance, and if we try to return the aether to SR without complete revision of the basis of this conception, of L-postulate in that number, this will cause the discrepancies in SR as the whole. We will see that the L-postulate has been substantiated on the formulas illegally taken from Maxwellian conception that were convenient for Relativity, out of interconnection and inter-causation of these formulas with material substance whose regularities these formulas reflect after Maxwell and Lorentz. Such practice can give nothing else than the discrepancy of the whole relativistic formalism. On a specific problem of mutual motion of two equal rods, we will show that when relativists agreed the relativity principle with the L-postulate, violating the principle of equivalence of inertial reference frames, the Lorentz transformation caused an imaginary violation of simultaneity in inertial frames being contradictory to the physical time in these frames introduced by relativists. We will reveal that the absolute value of non-simultaneity of events is independent of the choice of coordinate system; this causes its ambiguity and violates the physical logic on whose basis the transformation has been derived. Also we will show that the time transformation, according to the relativistic transformation, depends on the pattern of motion, and the main, on the direction of body’s motion. Together with the erroneous relativistic understanding of the frame turn by the complex angle, this ambiguity of Lorentz transformation makes the transformation incorrect. We will try to agree the absolute values of non-simultaneity of events that follow from the transformation with the local physical time in the moving frame. As the result, ambiguity of mapping of coordinate systems disappears, events in both inertial frames become simultaneous, but the new equations become irrelevant to the L-postulate, which is quite in order. Basing on the many-sided study, we can surely conclude that both postulates taken by Einstein as the basis of SR are incorrect. Key words: special theory of relativity, L-postulate, aether, relativity principle, equivalence of the reference frames, relativity of simultaneity, Lorentz transformation, turn by the complex angle Classification by MSC 2000: 83A05 Classification by PASC 2001: 03.30.+p Full text: / 28 / 29 / 30 / 31 / 32 / 33 / 34 / 35 / 36 / 37 / 38 / 39 / 40 / 41 / 42 / |
S.B. Karavashkin and O.N. Karavashkina ON THE WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY |
Published on 22.08.2006 |
We will study the phenomena of interference and diffraction of electrons from the point of modelling of processes, basing on the quantum-mechanical and classical approaches. We will reveal that when we represent an electron as some wave function of state or of probability of location in some region of space, it causes considerable contradictions producing the wave-particle duality and incorrect description of the phenomenon. In particular, probabilistic representation of wave function by Born leads to the fact that such probabilistic distribution has to exist also when electrons do not interact with atoms. The probabilistic model premises only positive values of probability, while the wave function is bipolar, which additionally distorts the idea of properties of electron. We will establish that the cause, why in the quantum-mechanical representation the model is distorted, is that in frames of this formalism the orbital motion of exterior electrons of atom is neglected and, consequently, the field of atom is taken stationary. Then interacting electrons have to have some spectrum of frequencies to interact in resonance with the atom according to the Schroedinger equation. This last causes full distortion of the wave function of electron and factually cancels the spectrum of frequencies and as a consequence the electron must turn into an EM wave of some resonance frequency. As an alternative to this representation, we will model the electron’s interaction with atom from the point of classical physics. In this model the field of atom will be represented as a field of skeleton and the field of the exterior orbital electron, due to which the resulting field becomes dynamic in the near of atom. Basing on the calculated dynamic field, we will model the interaction of the chain of electrons with this field and reveal that electrons form the periodic structure with the wavelength proportional to the product of period of orbiting of orbital electron into the velocity of interacting electrons. This wave-like formation propagates from the region of interaction within some angle, gradually changing its shape because of difference of velocities of the electrons after their interaction with the atom. The electrons in this set propagate according to the Rutherford model of scattering with account of the phase of dynamic field of the atom. The superimposition of many such wave-like formations causes the interference and diffraction patterns like the patterns of X-rays. This model will fully lift the wave-particle problem together with the discrepancies inherent in the quantum-mechanical formalism. Key words: quantum mechanics, wave-particle duality, electron diffraction on atom, charge waves Classification by MSC 2000: 78A20, 78A45, 78M10, 81V45, 81V80, 81T80 Classification by PASC 2001: 03.65.Nk, 03.65.-w, 03.75.Dg Full text: / 43 / 44 / 45 / 46 / 47 / 48 / 49 / 50 / 51 / 52 / |
S.B. Karavashkin and O.N. Karavashkina THE PROBLEM OF PHYSICAL TIME IN TODAY PHYSICS |
Published on 27.02.2007 |
In our previous papers devoted to different aspects of the theory of relativity and quantum theory we showed gross mistakes of these theories that make them groundless. So we have revealed: as today theoretical physics rejected the robust classical approaches, it has no reliable basis with which the scientists would be able to study correctly. This work builds a bridge of understanding for colleagues educated on the clearly idealistic relativistic and quantum conceptions, returning to the correct basic concepts of absolute and relative in the philosophy of physics – time, space, place, motion, acceleration, forces, correlation of moving reference frames. And though the aim of this work was to study the idea of physical time, the close interrelation of these concepts making the basis of classical physics required to involve to the consideration all definitions of Newtonian mechanics and to correlate them with the conventional theoretical and experimental basis. We tried to proceed not from the mathematical formalism as such but, doing not neglecting it, to base, following Newton, on the definitive properties of time as the philosophical category, combining them with the observed revelations and deriving from these properties the obvious, though sometimes unexpected corollaries. We would like to mark especially: this work would take much more efforts, if not a considerable information support of a colleague widely known among the colleagues as Ivan, creator and supporter of the e-library of inaccessible original works on physics and philosophy of science , so we would like to greatly acknowledge him. We also would like to express our great thanks to the colleagues from the Russian-language forums Vallav, george_telezhko and especially EVV for their comments, notes and criticism that helped to improve this paper and to make it more readable. Authors 1. Introduction: / 53 / 2. The causal analysis of Newtonian definition of space and time: / 54 / 3. The features of light propagation in the mutually moving inertial reference frames from the view of classical physics : / 55 / 56 / 57 / 4. The pattern of light propagation in the moving inertial reference frame from the point of relativistic mechanics: / 58 / 59 / 60 / 5. Discrepancies of 4-D geometrisation in the relativistic conception: / 61 / 62 / 63 /64 / 6. Mach’s problem of pail: / 65 / 6.1. Origin of the problem: / 65 / 6.2. Correctness of Einstein's equivalence of centrifugal forces to the gravity attraction of stars: / 66 / 6.3. Mach’s absolutisation of relative orbital motion: / 67 / 6.4. The features of inertia forces affection in accelerated motion of the body: / 68 / 6.4.1. The features of revelation of inertia forces under affection of lumped forces: / 68 / 69 / 6.4.2. The features that forces of inertia reveal under affection of distributed forces: / 70 / 6.4.2.1. The features of inertia forces revelation in the orbital motion in a central field: / 70 / 6.4.2.2. The generalised analysis of results of search of aethereal wind by interferometric methods: / 71 / 72 / 6.4.2.3. The features of revelation of inertial forces in a freely falling reference frame in a homogeneous gravity field: / 73 / 6.4.2.4. The speed of light radiated by the source falling in the homogeneous gravity field: / 74 / 7. On possibility to transform the physical time in reference frames moving with the sub-light speed: / 75 / 7.1. Transform of time in the relativistic conception: / 75 / 7.1.1. The problem of mutual contraction of time intervals: / 75 / 7.1.2. Check of pace of time in the mutually moving frames: / 76 / 7.1.3. The grounds to transform the time in relativistic conception: / 77 / 7.1.4. Check for correctness of relativistic time transform equation: / 78 / 79 / 7.1.5. Correctness of speed composition in the relativistic mechanics: / 80 / 7.2. Interrelation of basic properties of reference frame with the concepts of absolute and relative measures in the theory of measurements: / 81 / 7.3. The features of transformation of absolute and relative measures: / 82 / References: / 83 / |